Histology of the Stomach – PathologyNOW
December 27, 2019
Hello, welcome to the University of Rochester pathology series. This video will review the normal histology of the stomach. The slides that are shown in this video will be available on the U of R digital slides website. The stomach is a complex organ with complex histology and micro-anatomy. The stomach is composed of five main areas. The cardia is the most proximal portion, closest to the esophagus. The fundus and body are next. The antrum is distal to the body and adjacent to the pylorus. We will discuss the specifics of each region later in the video. The wall of the stomach is made up of four distinct layers which serve different purposes and are made up of different cell types. Bordering the lumen is the mucosa, the layer we will focus on. Next is the submucosa, followed by the muscularis externa and finally, the serosa, also known as the adventia. Here, we see a zoomed in view of the previous slide. This is an artery located in the submucosa and this is lymphatic tissue in the mucosa. There are four major cell types in the mucosal layer of the stomach: surface mucous cells, parietal cells, chief cells, and enteroendocrine cells. Surface mucous, or foveolar, cells line the stomach and gastric pits. They produce mucous which is critical in protecting the stomach against abrasion and acidity. Parietal cells are located in the body and fundus predominantly. The cells secrete hydrochloric acic and instrinsic factor, both of which are necessary for B12 absorption. Chief cells are located in the base of fundic glands. They are quite ordinary in appearance and secrete pepsinogen and a weak lipase. Enteroendocrine cells are located throughout the fundic glands, but are mainly focused in the base. With regular staining, they cannot be readily identified. Enteroendocrine cells produce many substances such as gastrin, glucagon, serotonin, and substance P. The way that the mucosal cells are organized differs depending on what region of the stomach you are in. The cardia, nearest the gastroesophageal junction, has shallow gastric pits which consist predominately of mucus or foveolar cells. The mucosa of the fundus and body contain a mixture of mucus cells and parietal cells and can be characterized as oxyntic mucosa. The antral mucosa returns to being predominantly mucus cells. Here, we see the muscularis externa with ganglion cells. These ganglion cells are part of the myenteric plexus, the main nerve supply to the gastrointestinal tract. Thank you for listening.