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Acid Reflux causes and Treatment



An antispasmodic is a drug or an herb
that suppresses muscle spasms. Smooth muscle spasm
One type of antispasmodics is used for smooth muscle contraction, especially in
tubular organs of the gastrointestinal tract. The effect is to prevent spasms
of the stomach, intestine or urinary bladder. Both dicyclomine and
hyoscyamine are antispasmodic due to their anticholinergic action. Both of
these drugs have general side effects and can worsen gastroesophageal reflux
disease. Mebeverine is a muscolotropic
spasmolytic with a strong and selective action on the smooth muscle spasm of the
gastrointestinal tract, particularly of the colon. It does not have the
acetylecholine side effect commonly seen in an anticholinergic antispasmodic.
Papaverine is an opium alkaloid used to treat visceral spasms, erectile
dysfunction and investigated as antipsychotic drug due to its potency to
inhibit phosphodiesterase PDE10A. Peppermint oil has been traditionally
used as an antispasmodic, and a review of studies on the topic found that it
“could be efficacious for symptom relief in IBS” although more carefully
controlled studies are needed. A later study showed it is an effective
antispasmodic when test-applied topically to the intestine during
endoscopy. Bamboo shoots have been used for
gastrointestinal and antispasmodic symptoms. Anisotropine, Atropine,
Cindinium Cap are also the most commonly used modern antispasmodics.
Skeletal muscle spasm Pharmacotherapy may be used for acute
musculoskeletal conditions when physical therapy is unavailable or has not been
fully successful. Another class of antispasmodics for such treatment
includes cyclobenzaprine, carisoprodol, orphenadrine, and tizanidine.
Effectiveness has not been clearly shown for metaxalone, methocarbamol,
chlorzoxazone, baclofen, or dantrolene. Applicable conditions include acute back
or neck pain, or pain after an injury. Spasm may also be seen in movement
disorders featuring spasticity in neurologic conditions such as cerebral
palsy, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord disease. Medications are commonly
used for spastic movement disorders, but research has not shown functional
benefit for some drugs. Some studies have shown that medications have been
effective in decreasing spasticity, but that this has not been accompanied by
functional benefits. Medications such as baclofen, tizanidine, and dantrolene
have been used. See also
Spasticity Muscarinic antagonist
Parasympatholytic Phloroglucinol
References External links
Antispasmodics at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject

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